EUNG-DAP-SO (Civil Complaint/Proposal Integrated Services)

Date 2017-03-17 Category E-Government Updater hyelyn
Marc Holzer, Minsung Kang
Last Update


  • Introduced to respond more quickly to citizen comments, difficulties and complaints.

  • Online system integrating and managing various service channels : 31 existing complaints and proposal sites, including one-click e-applications, social media center, 120 citizen discomfort observations, Oasis of 10 million imagination,

  • Citizens can use the CCPIS, mobile devices, SNS, phones to request all types of complaint and proposal.

  • If filed before 6PM, simple complaints can be responded in the same day. Content that requires in-depth review will be responded via mobile phone, email, SNS after being handled by the relevant organization department.

Figure 2-5. Eung-Dap-So: An Overview

Source. Seoul Metropolitan Government. (2014). Digital Seoul e-Government


Policy Goal

Prior to the current Integrated Complaints handling system, the City of Seoul citizens too often experienced inconvenience in terms of the government’s numerous complaints systems.

In particular, for ordinary citizens without any knowledge of how the administrative system works, it was a hassle to find the responsible department and the officer in charge in order to report their opinions and complaints. From the administration side, the extant communication channels were not interchangeable with the costs and difficulties in the administration of the civil complaints.

To solve and reduce the red tape characteristics of SMG’s communication policy, Eung-Dap-So was introduced. Its policy goals are as follows:

1. Increasing Accessibility and Responsibility of SMG

Quick and easy way to contact for anyone
Simplified system that incorporates all the existing channels such as phone call, visiting, internet suggestion and social media.
Immediate response to the citizens’ opinion and suggestion
Constructing a more systematic way to provide feedbacks to citizens’ complaints

2. Improving Public Productivity of SMG Officers 

Increase work efficiency through a refined single-channeled system
Set up and provide at-a-glance understanding environment for the public officers in terms of complaints handling

3. Enhancing Effectiveness of SMG

Answering to all the opinions from citizens by integrated managing system
Managing the opinions regardless of channel, format, place and time


Performance and Outcome

After the introduction of the integrated management system, SMG obtained the following outcomes:

Figure 2-6. The proportion of citizen proposals by Channels (Feb. 2014 – Dec. 2015)

Source: Seoul Metropolitan Government (2015). Eung-Dap-So Operation Report.

First, visible improvement in quantitative performance, which reduces the complaint processing periods. The wait time to obtain responses from the government has been reduced from 3.8 days in 2013 to 2.9 in 2015. Eun-Dap-So enables to make immediate responses to the citizen complaints, which results in the qualitative improvements in communication with the public. Second, due to a significant improvement in the qualitative performance of complaints, the SMG implemented the “immediate answering” system.

In addition, they disclosed and made public the complaints handling process, including the person in charge and the processing time to the citizen. Third, due to the effort to communicate through SNS with the citizen, the followers of SMG’s SNS accounts (Facebook, tweeter) have almost tripled from 50,000 followers in 2013 to 130,000 in 2015. The detailed policy outcomes can be summarized as follows:

1. Reduced complaint processing time

3.8 days (before)  → 2.9 days (in 2015)

2. Increased Responsibility and Accessibility to SMG

Easy and convenient real-time complaint management system
Instantaneous response to simple complaints or questions

3. Open and disclosed administrative processing

Public servant responsible for the claim is revealed to the public

4. Two-Way Communication Interface

Followers of SMG’s Social Media:
50,000 (before) → 130,000 (in 2015 after policy adoption)

5. Improved Public Productivity

Public officers of SMG now can handle the complaints by using a single system
Specifically, since the introduction of the system, citizens’ proposals and opinions have been substantially increased, especially through the Social Media. According to the SMG’s CCPIS operation report (2015), SNS was the Seoul citizens’ most preferred channel when it comes to contact with the government. Of the total 407,122 cases, 56% of proposals have been received via Social Media, which clearly shows that Social Media was the primary channel for communication with the government.

Since the introduction of Eung-Dap-So, the system is known to have achieved considerable public performance not only in terms of citizen satisfaction but also in terms of work efficiency for the SMG officers. For example, Eung-Dap-So has reduced workloads by eliminating duplicate proposals and has simplified the complaints processing system within the government. Most complaints are simple inquiries and require very little administrative determination and, therefore, citizens’ satisfaction are generally affected by the promptness of the responses


Seoul City Special Operations Strategy

• Realtime evaluations and incentives applied to complaint handling and response

Realtime monitoring of complaint processing speed of Seoul, affiliated organizations, and 25 districts. Periodic selection and presentation of best departments, outstanding departments, and outstanding employee awards for CCPIS complaint handling departments by evaluating target speed (50%), fidelity (30%), cooperation (10%), special results (10%) This leads to active correspondence with Citizen complaints.

• Increased convenience through SNS reception and response.

+ Integrated complaints, proposals and responses through SNS, allows for easy and convenient realtime complaint management available anytime, any place.
+ In emergency situations, such as disasters and crises, official messages related to current situation, measures and crisis response measures can be sent in batches.

Law Provisions

• Electronic government act

• Civil Petitions Treatment Act

• Seoul City Electronic Window for Civil Petitions Operational Regulations

• Seoul City Message Complaints Handling Regulations

Policy Details


Figure 2-7. Eung-Dap-So: Policy Performance and Expectation

Source. Seoul Metropolitan Government. (2014). Digital Seoul e-Government.

Figure 2-8. A Summary of Eung Dap So Proposal Process

Source: Park (2016), EUNGDAPSO & Social Network Services, 2016 ASPA Annual Conference

Figures 2-7 and 2-8. present the summary of CCPIS system. One major feature of the system is that, if the suggestions or opinions are filed before 6PM, simple complaints can be responded to within the same day. 


Main Functions 

Figure 2-9. Emergency Management by Eung-Dap-So

Source: Seoul Metropolitan Government (2016), EUNGDAPSO & Social Network Services, 2016 ASPA Annual Conference

The main functions of Eung-Dap-So can be summarized as follows:

Registering Complaints and Proposals.
Eung-Dap-So files the cases such as complaints and proposal applications, public official corruption reporting, reporting for public interest, applying for help regarding violations of human rights, reporting violations of public welfare, and all other types of complaints and/or proposal. When the detailed and specific opinions are required for any response to the cases, responses are obtained from the SMG’s departments and agencies, affiliated headquarters, and/or from any of the 25 districts within the SMG. The cases about the outside of Seoul will be transferred to Korea central government Ministries, other local governments and/or government offices. Complaints and proposals can be made with text, voice, photo or video files attached. Request for direct consultation is also possible

Check Results of Complaints/Proposals.
If filed before 6PM, simple complaints can be responded to the same day. Content that requires in-depth review will be responded to via mobile phone, email or SNS after being handled by the relevant organization department. Progress on processing steps for registered complaints, process content, and additional responses can all be easily checked anytime, from anywhere.

View Example Complaints/Proposals.
Search through examples of responses to various complaints/proposals posted on bulletin boards is possible with the use of specific keywords.

View Frequently Asked Questions
Ability to search through bulletin boards using specific keywords for citizens’ frequently asked question (FAQs) is also possible.

Citizens Evaluate Satisfaction to Government’s Reponses.
Ratings on a score of 1 to 5 can be given to responses. Additional responses can also be requested.

Real-time Social Media Communication
Complaints, questions, proposals and responses submitted to the City of Seoul can be viewed in real-time by the Mayor of Seoul.

Emergency Management
For the more effective emergency management, the SMG has collaborated with private sectors to distribute emergency messages by using the Social Media of the private sectors. Specifically, as with agencies such as FEMA and Homeland Security in the U.S., and the Policy Agency in Japan, SMG is also authorized to make Twitter Emergency Alerts to the Citizen. Thus, the CCPIS system can spread Emergency Alerts promptly via 31 twitter-accounts that possess emergency management function.

Composition and Details

Figure 2-10. is the list of Social Media Accounts of Twitter and Facebook which are connected to the Eung-Dap-So. So to speak, all the messages, comments and postings to those 16 Social Media Accounts from the citizen are handled clearly and accurately by the SMG.

In addition, in case of disaster situations, the Retweet function of Twitter and Sharing function of Facebook are far more effective than traditional channels, in which the emergency messages can be disseminated instantly with the support of the citizens. 

Figure 2-10. Social Media Accounts Connected and Managed by Eung-Dap-So

Source: Seoul Metropolitan Government (2016), EUNGDAPSO & Social Network Services, 2016 ASPA Annual Conference


Eung-Dap-So: Web Site Composition


 Figure 2-11. Eung-Dap-So Web Site Composition


Source: Holzer et al. (2016). “Establishment of Bridgehead for Policy Export and International Relations: Digital e-governance of Seoul Metropolitan Government.” 2016 ASPA Annual Conference.
Retrieved from http://eungdapso.seoul.go.kr/Cmn/Cmn01/Cmn01_not.jsp

Eung-Dap-so: Real-time Monitoring System


Figure 2-12. Eung-Dap-So: Real-time Monitoring System


Source: Holzer et al. (2016). “Establishment of Bridgehead for Policy Export and International Relations: Digital e-governance of Seoul Metropolitan Government.” 2016 ASPA Annual Conference. Retrieved from http://eungdapso.seoul.go.kr/Cmn/Cmn01/Cmn01_not.jsp


Case of Singapore, Singapore

Challenges of e-Government are not limited to technology; they require broad understanding of the multidimensionality of the e-Government development process. Very similar to the vision and strategies of the SMG, the Singapore Capital City Government built an e-Government structure that incorporates new forms of leadership, transformative public and private partnerships, participatory processes and increased accountability.

Figure 2-13. Singapore Government Web Site: Main Page

Retrieved from https://www.gov.sg/

e-Government Profile: Singapore (Source: Holzer & Manoharan, 2016. Digital Governance in Municipalities Worldwide (2015–16): Fifth Global E-Governance Survey: A Longitudinal Assessment of Municipal Websites throughout the World. National Center for Public Performance, Rutgers University-Newark.)
One of the Top 20 Cities in Digital Governance from 2009 to present
  • 4th in 2014 Digital Gov. Ranking
  • 5th in 2009 and 16th in 2012
  • 8th in Content Measurement
  • 7th in Service Delivery Measurement
  • 2nd in Citizen and Social Engagement
According to the Rutgers University’s Digital Governance, Singapore is in the top 20 cities in terms of e-Government and Digital Governance. More specifically, the Singapore Capital City Government has scored considerably high in the Service Delivery measures and the Citizen & Social Engagement measures of e-Government.

Figure 2-14. Singapore Government Web Site: An Accessibility to Government

Retrieved from https://www.gov.sg

Figure 2-14. presents the accessibility to the Government through the Website. The Homepage clearly specifies the structure of department information in government. In this Directory page, Singapore citizens have access to government directly and simultaneously, and citizens can find detailed information about public officers in charge with the advanced search function on the left-side of the page.

Contact information and Webmaster’s e-mail address are provided for inquiries and Emergency Contacts. In case citizens want to leave feedback, the site offers a Feedback Page, therefore citizens can make suggestions without having to contact public officers directly.

Figure 2-15. Singapore Government’s Communication through Social Media: Facebook

Retrieved from https://www.facebook.com/gov.sg

On Figure 2-15 and 2-16, Singapore Government officially operates Facebook, Twitter and YouTube as an alternative means of communication to traditional channels. However, all channels offer two-way communication between government and citizens. Nevertheless, the channels are still managed separately though the link is provided from the Website.

Figure 2-16. Singapore Government’s Communication through Social Media: Twitter

Retrieved from https://twitter.com/govsingapore