Transition from the Vehicle-oriented City to the Pedestrian-friendly City

Date 2017-01-11 Category Urban planning Updater 이혜인
Jun-Ho Koh
Researcher, the Seoul Institute
Last Update


Seoul has pursued industrialization and urbanization to achieve urban growth for decades, establishing a vehicle-oriented transport system that offered advantages in ensuring urban competitiveness. However, structuring the city space with a focus on vehicles reduced the space for pedestrian paths and impeded urban vitality, while indiscriminate development led to the loss of many pedestrian paths with cultural and historical value, and inefficient use of remaining footpaths.

To address this situation, the SMG implemented various policies for creating a pleasant and safe walking environment in order to develop Seoul as a pedestrian-friendly city. This policy began in earnest with the “Creation of pedestrian-friendly walkways” project in 1998. The Seoul plaza was built in front of Seoul City Hall in 2004, and the Cheonggyecheon stream restoration project was implemented in 2005 to remove large roads and create spaces for walkways instead.

During the period from 2007 to 2011, the SMG implemented the “Design Seoul Street” and “Street Renaissance” projects to unify the designs of public facilities on the streets and improve the pavements of the walkways. In April 2012, the SMG announced the “Ten Commandments for Pavements in Seoul” to reduce inconveniences to pedestrians. In accordance with this slogan, various projects were implemented, including the “sidewalk construction under real names project,” which consisted in inscribing the contractor’s name on the sidewalks, the “One-strike Out policy,” which aimed to restrict poor construction companies from participating in biddings, and the “securing temporary pedestrian walkways” initiative which aimed to improve pedestrian environments around construction sites.

In the eyes of Seoul’s citizens, however, pedestrian environments did not seem greatly improved, despite the fact that the SMG had consistently implemented its pedestrian-friendly policies. As of 2013, 78% of all the roads in downtown Seoul were community roads for both pedestrians and vehicles whose width is less than 12 meters, but pedestrians experienced considerable inconvenience in using them due to the sheer number of illegally parked vehicles. The width of the walkways were over the minimum 2 meters, mandated by the related regulations, but the sidewalks actually seemed very narrow because of bollards, ventilation openings, roadside trees, and such.

Of the total number of road casualties, pedestrians accounted for 57.0% (as of 2011), highlighting the safety problems that pedestrians were facing. In a survey of the most unstable, inconvenient and unpleasant facilities conducted by the SMG in 2011, walkways and roadways were ranked second and third, accounting for 17.7% and 10.3% of the responses respectively. This shows the extent to which pedestrians believed their environment was poor.

In 2013, the SMG presented the “Seoul Vision for the Pedestrian-friendly City” and prepared ways for Seoul to improve the pedestrian environment. The contents of ten projects—such as pedestrian-only streets, pedestrian-friendly areas, introduction and expansion of pedestrian priority roads, vehicle speed limits, improvements to the traffic signal system for pedestrians, creation of downtown pedestrian roads and the Seoul walkathon—were all important aspects of this vision.


Main Pedestrian Policies of the SMG by Period

Until the early 1990s, pedestrian traffic accidents occurred frequently due to the harsh pedestrian environment in Seoul, and accordingly, calls for the improvement of narrow walkways were increasing. The SMG began to prepare systems to improve the pedestrian environment by implementing the Act on the Establishment of Child Protection Zones in 1996 and an ordinance on pedestrian roads in 1997. The SMG started projects for pedestrian road improvement by creating streets without cars in 1997, and pedestrian-friendly walkways in 1998. The Seoul Plaza, created in 2004, was notable in that it was made by eliminating intersections and driveways in the downtown area to create a large turfed area of 13,207m2 for pedestrians. Since then, it has served as a foundation for the implementation of pedestrian-related policies across Seoul.

The Seoul design project, executed from 2007, was not only intended to improve the pedestrian environment, but also to add aesthetic elements to the pedestrian passages so as to give pedestrians a feeling of satisfaction when passing via the walkways. In 2010, the SMG established a department for pedestrians and bikes under the Seoul City Traffic Headquarters, which has devoted itself exclusively to implementing policies related to pedestrians and bikes. The SMG has also made continuous efforts to improve the pedestrian environment by implementing such initiatives as the designation of pedestrian priority areas and the Seoul Street Renaissance project, as well as announcing the “Seoul Vision for the Pedestrian-friendly City.” More specifically, the Seoul Vision for a Pedestrian-friendly City was noteworthy because it comprised ten action plans conceived to improve the entire pedestrian environment by expanding pedestrian-only streets and pedestrian-friendly streets, installing additional crosswalks in downtown areas, and introducing pedestrian priority streets in residential areas. Its main pedestrian-related policies are as follows:
  • Early 1990s: Movement for pedestrian rights related to safety issues in school zone walkways and alleys in residential areas
  • 1996: Legislation of the Act on the Establishing of Child Protection Zones
  • 1997: Legislation of ordinance on pedestrians in Seoul; establishment of car-free streets (Insa-dong, Myeongdong-gil, Gwancheoldong-gil)
  • 1998: Implementation of pedestrian-friendly walkway project; establishment of 1st basic plan for Seoul’s pedestrian environment
  • 1999: Installation of a crosswalk on the north-south side of Sejongno intersection; implementation of the Green Way Project
  • 2000: Installation of a crosswalk in front of the Seoul Arts Center
  • 2004: Creation of Seoul Plaza
  • 2005: Establishment of 2nd basic plan for Seoul’s pedestrian environment
  • 2007: Implementation of the Design Seoul Street Creation project
  • 2008: Implementation of a pilot project for pedestrian priority areas and the Seoul Street Renaissance project
  • 2009: Establishment of a plan to improve pedestrian traffic
  • 2010: Establishment of a new department for pedestrians and bicyclists within the Seoul City Traffic Headquarters
  • 2012: Legislation of an act intended to secure and protect pedestrian rights and improve pedestrian’s convenience
  • 2013: Announcement of the Seoul Vision for a Pedestrian-friendly City

<Figure 1> Main Pedestrian Policies by Period

1995~1997 1998~2002 2002~2005 2007~2011 2011~
Green Traffic Plans Pedestrian-friendly Street Cheonggyecheon and Bus-only Lane Street Renaissance Pedestrian-friendly City
Installation of a department responsible for pedestrians for the first time. Designation of streets including Jeongdong-gil. Expansion to the landscape and tourism levels. Creation of Seoul Plans. Restoration of Cheonggyecheon Stream after demolishing the Cheonggye Expressway. Establishment of a design concept. Installation of media board on Gangnam Street. Remodeling of the overpass at Seoul Station and the Se-un Arcade. Improvement of pedestrian environment.


Legislation of Ordinance on Pedestrians

The SMG was the first city government in the world to enact an ordinance specifically related to pedestrians. The legislation of the ordinance was originally intended as the cornerstone of a plan to evolve Seoul from a vehicle-oriented city into a “pedestrian-friendly city” that aimed to put people first. Preparations for the ordinance began while civic groups insisted on the passage of the legislation and its necessity was broadcast to the public. In December 1995, the city council members of the Transportation Committee of Seoul Metropolitan Council and various civic groups held a meeting and agreed to develop a movement to legislate the ordinance on pedestrians. In February 1996, the SMG hosted a forum to discuss ways of creating a pedestrian-friendly city and future plans for legislation of the pedestrian ordinance. In October 1996, the Seoul Metropolitan Council proposed the ordinance on pedestrians in Seoul, and three months later, in January 1997, the ordinance was implemented.

According to the new ordinance, “the SMG shall establish a “Basic Plan for the Pedestrian Environment” every five years.” The ordinance also stipulated that “the basic plan shall clearly present the kinds, contents, necessary budgets and subjects of the pedestrian environment improvement projects that the SMG has to implement over the next five years.” In addition, project-related job allocation, promotional organizations, the preparation of regulations and standards, and method of facilitating civil participation were all to be included in the basic plan. Thus, the first basic plan for the pedestrian environment was established in 1998.


Creation of Car-free Streets.

The “Creation of Car-free Streets” in Seoul is one of the city’s representative projects related to its pedestrian-oriented traffic policies. The project to create car-free streets was designed to allocate more urban spaces to citizens due to the lack of spaces for pedestrians. Seoul designated Insadong-gil, Myeongdong-gil and Gwancheoldong-gil as car-free streets in 1997, and began to gradually expand the number of car-free areas. As of 2011, there were twenty-four car-free streets, whose combined length was about 18 kilometers. Car-free streets were designated mainly in downtown commercial areas and residential living spaces, with car control periods and methods differing depending on the local conditions (i.e. all-day operation on nine streets, weekend-only operation on fourteen streets, and occasional operation on one street).

<Figure 2> Examples of Car-free Streets in Seoul

(a) Car-free Myeongdong-gil                                                   (b) Car-free Gwancheoldong-gil (Youth Street)

Creation of Seoul Plaza

Before the rebirth of Seoul Plaza in its current form, there were large intersections and broad driveways in front of Seoul City Hall. The neighboring areas suffered from chronic traffic congestion. Because pedestrian crossing was only possible via an underground passage, access to pedestrian crosswalks was poor. There was no consideration for the disabled or the elderly in the current infrastructure. As the area in front of Seoul City Hall was used as a “cheering venue” during the 2002 World Cup, there was a growing demand for a space where citizens could gather and communicate.

The SMG began discussions about converting the area in front of City Hall into a plaza in the city center. The SMG conducted a survey of public opinion, in which 79% of the respondents agreed with the plan, thus showing a positive reaction and strong public support.
The SMG created the Seoul Plaza based on the following four basic directions: recovery of historic and symbolic value, reorganization of the traffic system, satisfaction of pedestrians’ needs, and creation of cultural spaces. Completed on May 1, 2004, Seoul Plaza (13,207m2) has since been used for diverse events and gatherings. Meanwhile, most of the responses against the construction of the Seoul Plaza were concerned with serious traffic congestion (i.e. 82% of the 15% of respondents who were opposed to the new plaza). However, according to most experts’ evaluations, traffic flow has been greatly improved by the creation of the Seoul Plaza.


<Figure 3> Before and After the Creation of Seoul Plaza

(a) Before                                                                                              (b) After
Source: Home page of the SMG (http://plaza.seoul.go.kr/archives/367)

Removal of Elevated Roads and Pedestrian Overpasses

Along with the many projects for improving the pedestrian environment, the SMG tore down elevated roads in order to enhance both the city’s appearance and the aesthetic pleasure of pedestrians. Also, the SMG demolished many of its pedestrian overpasses and replaced them with crosswalks at the same places to enhance pedestrians’ convenience.

Beginning with the Tteokjeon overpass in 2002, the SMG torn down around twenty elevated roads installed on main streets in the ensuing ten-year period. The representative overpass demolition project entailed the demolition of the Cheonggye overpass crossing Seoul from east to west in 2003, which was effective in improving the urban landscape and environment. In addition, the resulting traffic flow was not as bad as originally concerned. According to some domestic studies on the demolition of overpasses, it has had a number of positive economic effects, such as improving the traffic flow, increasing revenues in neighboring commercial areas, raising the value of housing, and improving the surrounding landscape, thus supporting the appropriateness of the demolition project.

Many citizens and experts pointed out that the reckless installation of pedestrian overpasses as part of pedestrian environment improvement projects had hindered the mobility of disabled or vulnerable pedestrians (such as children, the elderly, the disabled and stroller carriers) and increased traffic accident rates because of jaywalking. The SMG accepted these opinions, and started to tear down the pedestrian overpasses and install new pedestrian crossings instead. The pedestrian overpass demolition project was not implemented in a comprehensive form, but allowed the autonomous districts to demolish pedestrian overpasses on a case-by-case basis according to the wishes of the public, after a site investigation and meetings with related people. Thus, the number of pedestrian overpasses in Seoul was reduced from 206 in 2007 to 165 in 2013, i.e. an average of six per year over the seven-year period.

Main Contents

In January 2013, the SMG announced the “Seoul Vision for a Pedestrian-friendly City” so as to pave the way for its successful transition to a city with an advanced pedestrian environment. The SMG itself set the goal of increasing the pedestrian traffic rate from the current 16% to 20% by 2020. The vision now serves as a guideline for all pedestrian-related polices.

Current Problems and Issues with Seoul’s Pedestrian Environment

The SMG conducted a diagnosis of the pedestrian environment in its downtown areas before establishing the Seoul Vision for a Pedestrian-friendly City. The findings indicated that Seoul had the following four main problems to resolve: the dangers of jaywalking resulting from the lack of pedestrian crossings; the illegal occupation of roads in residential areas by numerous vehicles; the excessive number of pedestrian overpasses and underground passages; and the uneven width of walkways. Furthermore, the pedestrian overpasses and underground passages were built with the focus on vehicles rather than on public convenience, with no consideration for the mobility of disabled or vulnerable pedestrians.

Ten Main Projects of the “Seoul Vision for the Pedestrian-friendly City”

- Expansion of Designated Pedestrian-only Streets

The SMG planned to expand the designation of pedestrian-only streets and operate them in either weekend or all-day mode in consideration of local conditions such as the pedestrian traffic volume, the functions of roads, and road traffic. After conducting several pilot operations, the SMG designated Sejongno as the first pedestrian-only street to be operated in the weekend mode on the third Sunday of each month. On streets to be designated as pedestrian-only ones, such as Sejongno, in downtown Seoul, recycled goods sharing markets, farmers’ markets, open art theaters and cultural events offering hands-on experiences would be held. Professional management planners would be hired for the operation of the substantial content of these areas. The SMG planned to invite public participation in the development of festivals and events that would reflect local characteristics, and to encourage the participation of the autonomous districts by supporting their design planning.


<Figure 4> Test Operation of Pedestrian-only Street in Sejongno

s. Initial Implementation Date: Sep. 23 (SUN), 2012 (occasional operation)
s. Section: Gwanghwamun three-way intersection to Sejongno intersection
s. Events: Recycled goods sharing markets, farmers’ markets, etc.
s. Project Results
  • No. of Participants: approx. 53,000
  • Increased social interest via media reports
  • Fourfold increase in number of visitors to neighboring commercial areas and a 10% increase in revenue.

- Creation of Five Pedestrian-friendly Areas by 2014

The pedestrian-friendly area suggested by the SMG differed from the pedestrian-only street because the former was designed to improve the pedestrian environment via the extension of walkways and the installation of safety-related facilities and specialized local passages. The latter was intended merely to control the entry of vehicles while maintaining the existing street shapes. The target areas of the project were Yeonse-ro, which was the first public transportation-only area in Seoul, Seongbukdong-gil, which was a history and culture tourist area, Gangbyeonno, which had lots of pedestrian traffic, and Yeongjungno and Daehangno. These areas were expected to gain local competitiveness by integrating their regional characteristics and pleasant pedestrian passages. Seongbukdong-gil was expected to be revitalized with the renewal of its pedestrian sidewalks, the installation of new pedestrian guidance signboards, and the influx of citizens via the passages. The SMG also planned to designate pedestrian-first roads and children-only pedestrian walkways and to lower the regulated speed limits.

- Introduction of the Pedestrian-first Roads in Living Areas

The SMG decided to introduce the pedestrian-first road system in living areas where the volume of pedestrian traffic was high and the width of roads was around 10 meters, which meant a high risk of traffic accidents. Thus, pedestrians have priority of passage over vehicles on the pedestrian-first roads in the living areas. The sidewalk of the pedestrian-first road would be widened as much as possible and speed bumps, pedestrian-first signboards and roundabouts would be installed. The speed limit of vehicles would be 30km/h.

- Operation of Children-only Streets

The SMG planned to expand the number of children-only streets gradually after analyzing the effects of pilot projects implemented in front of ten primary schools in 2013. Once a road is designated as a children-only street, traffic safety signs are marked on the road, more CCTVs are installed, and the entry of vehicles is controlled in the road in front of the schools during school hours. Also, “Amazone” spaces, where children can romp around, would be operated in seven model areas in five districts by 2014. The SMG dispatched experts to the sites of nineteen autonomous districts that had expressed a desire to operate an Amazone scheme and selected five districts. The pilot projects were implemented in three districts in 2013 and in two districts in 2014. The main goals of Amazone were to prevent various crimes and to secure the pedestrian traffic safety of children through the placement of traffic safety instructors, designation of no-smoking areas, operation of volunteer patrol groups, merge vehicle traffic of private educational institutes, increase of CCTVs, and transition from two-way traffic to one-way traffic.

- Lowering of Speed Limit on Back Roads of Living Areas

The SMG decided to lower the speed limit of vehicles on the back roads of living areas in order to prevent traffic accidents in residential areas. The SMG held a conference with the National Police Agency to lower the maximum speed limits from 40km/h to 30km/h on double-lane roads and from 60km/h to 50km/h on four-lane roads. The adjusted speed limits were first applied to ten roads in the first half of 2013. The SMG also adjusted the speed limit from 50km/h to 30km/h on main roads in downtown areas, including Cheonggyecheon, and planned to expand the speed limit to the entire Seoul area.

- Overall Improvement of the Pedestrian Environment for the Mobility Handicapped

The SMG determined to improve the pedestrian environment in order to help mobility handicapped persons travel anywhere by themselves in Seoul. It planned to expand the installation of elevators (from 794 to 826 units) and escalators (from 1,779 to 1,852 units) to 2,678 units in total at subway stations, and to provide a voice recognition service for destination information for the blind at 400 inter-city bus stations. The SMG also planned to improve the functions of acoustic signal generating devices and to expand their installation by 1,000 units each year. In order to ensure that pedestrian and traffic safety facilities provide real help to the mobility handicapped, the SMG decided to introduce a system for evaluating and validating whether the facilities of bus stations and subways, roads and pedestrian facilities (walkways, crossings, traffic lights, etc.) are suitable for the pedestrian environment of the mobility handicapped.

- Extension of Green Signal Time of Traffic Lights Installed at Pedestrian Crossings

The SMG planned to extend the green signal time of traffic lights at pedestrian crossings from the existing 1.0m/s to 0.8m/s in consideration of the slower walking speed of mobility handicapped persons such as children and the elderly. The main targets were areas densely populated with mobility handicapped persons, such as the neighboring areas of Tapgol Park and Boramae Park, where many elderly persons come and go, and the Children’s Grand Park, which attracts many children.

- Installation of Crosswalks at All Downtown Intersections

The SMG planned to install crosswalks at all intersections in the downtown area step by step. The plan was designed to eliminate the inconvenience of following a circuitous route due to the lack of crosswalks and to guarantee the right to movement of mobility handicapped persons who have difficulties using pedestrian overpasses. The crosswalks would be installed at most of the downtown intersections, including Gwanghwamun, Anguk-dong, Heunginjimun (Gate) and City Hall, in all directions and in all places where there were underground passages and pedestrian overpasses. The SMG would also select the type of crosswalks and install them after checking the pedestrian and vehicle traffic of each intersection and the road functions.

- Spread of Walking Culture via the “Seoul Walkathon” as a Pedestrian Festival and Creation of Downtown Pedestrian Roads Connecting with Tourist Attractions

The SMG planned to hold the Seoul Walkathon as a pedestrian festival in pedestrian-friendly Seoul in a bid to spread the walking culture and to develop downtown pedestrian roads (promenade) that connect the royal palaces, major shopping areas, and historical and cultural assets in downtown Seoul in parallel with the application for Seoul Fortress Wall’s registration as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The SMG also planned to designate a day in April or September as a “Day for Pedestrians and Bikes” and select a section to hold the event with big PR effects and symbolic meaning of pedestrians occupying the downtown area, which is usually packed with vehicles. The downtown pedestrian roads would be formed with the Seoul Plaza at their center, and be equipped with signboards for pedestrians, signposts showing the distance and time required to specific destinations, and pedestrian road guide lines.


Status of Pedestrian Facilities in Seoul and Achievements

In order to improve the pedestrian environment, the SMG has installed a variety of walkways, crosswalks, pedestrian-only streets and other facilities on a continuous basis. The combined length of the walkways in Seoul steadily increased from 2,375km in 2002 to 2,789km in 2011. (Refer to <Figure 5>).

<Figure 5> Change of Total Length of Walkways and Their Areas

The number of crosswalks also increased from 25,275 in 2007 to 32,251 in 2013. Notably, just one year after the announcement of the “Seoul Vision for the Pedestrian-friendly City,” a total of 2,534 crosswalks had been installed. As of 2011, there were 3.6 crosswalks for every one kilometer of road, one crosswalk approximately every 300m. As many as 32% of the crosswalks were equipped with traffic lights, and 7,938 were equipped with acoustic signal generation devices.


<Figure 6> Change in No. of Crosswalks in Seoul

The SMG has designated and expanded the number of child- and senior citizen-protection zones. As of 2012, some 1,598 child protection zones were in operation, along with 48 senior citizen protection zones. In the case of child protection zones, around 55.1% of the target facilities (primary schools, kindergartens, private educational institutes, etc.) had been designated by 2012.

 <Table 1> Status of Designated Child Protection Areas and Improvement Projects of Seoul (As of 2012)

Classification Sum Primary
Kindergartens Daycare
No. of Target
2,899 594 866 374 45 1,020
No. of
1,598 593 652 324 29  

<Table 2> Status of Designated Senior Protection Areas and Improvement Projects of Seoul (As of 2012)

Classification Sum Housing Welfare Medical Welfare Leisure Welfare City Parks Lifetime Sports Facilities
No. of Target Facilities 6,362 30 432 3,545 1,966 389
No. of Designated
48 3 8 37 - -

Increase of Pedestrian Traffic in Seoul

As a result of the continuous promotion of pedestrian environment improvement projects, pedestrian traffic in Seoul showed a growing trend. The SMG has taken annual censuses of the floating population on the main streets of the entire Seoul area since 2009. According to the data, the floating population of Seoul on a weekly average pedestrian traffic basis increased by 4.3%, from 5,165 persons per 14 hours in 2009 to 5,384 persons per14 hours in 2012. During the weekdays, the largest increase of pedestrian traffic occurred on Friday, rising from 5,411 persons per 14 hours in 2009 to 5,680 persons per 14 hours in 2012. Seoul’s citizens are turned out to enjoy more leisure activities on Friday afternoons. Given that the largest increase of pedestrian traffic occurred on Friday, it seems that the improvements of the pedestrian environment undertaken by the SMG could further promote its citizens’ walking activities.

<Table 3> Change of Seoul’s Floating Population in 2009 and 2012

Unit : person/14hr
Classification Mon. Tue. Wed. Fri. Sat. Weekday Average Weekly Average
2012 5,352 5,371 5,393 5,680 5,126 5,449 5,384
2009 5,101 5,241 5,156 5,411 4,913 5,227 5,165
Difference (2012-2009) 251 130 237 269 213 222 219

Limits and Implication

Low-carbon green growth, environmentally-friendly industry, and pedestrian/public transportation have become the common values of the contemporary world. Amid such global trends, the creation of a pedestrian-friendly city has attracted attention as a core project. But the projects to develop Seoul into a pedestrian-friendly city have lacked connectivity thus far because the target areas tended to be selected for administrative expediency and the projects were implemented individually. As a result, the continuity of the pedestrian traffic flow could not be satisfactorily ensured. Thus, it is recommended that Seoul’s future pedestrian projects consider connectivity between the planning projects first and then implement them gradually to create a pedestrian-friendly city.

However, the pleasant and safe pedestrian-friendly city that Seoul is striving to create cannot be realized simply with projects to improve the pedestrian environment. In spite of the SMGs concerted efforts, it is true that getting about the city by car is relatively easier than by public transport or on foot in the current traffic environment in Seoul. Therefore, it is necessary to improve the city’s ongoing pedestrian-related policies and current public transportation services and to implement parking and traffic demand management policies in parallel in various fields in order to create a better pedestrian-friendly city.

The SMGs pedestrian policies have been promoted individually as well as uniformly with the focus on improving pedestrian walkways rather than concentrating on the meaning of urban space. The policies for creating a pedestrian-friendly city should focus on the pedestrian walkways as a part of urban space and bring the space to life. Also, it is necessary to manage the land use and landscape surrounding the streets and create pedestrian spaces that reflect local characteristics beyond the uniform improvement of pedestrian walkways. If the SMG offered its citizens opportunities to participate directly or indirectly in the planning and implementation stages of such projects, it would be beneficial to the creation of pedestrian spaces that correctly reflect local features.



  • Jong-hyeok Kim, Jin-tae Kim, 2011, “Before and After the Demolition of Elevated Roads in Seoul”, Road Traffic No. 125
  • Press Release of the Seoul Metropolitan Government, 2012, “Seoul Vision for Pedestrian-friendly City: Not Vehicles but Pedestrians come first”
  • The Seoul Institute, 2012, “Study on the Improvement and Expansion of Car-free Streets of Seoul – Focusing on the Downtown Area (Improvement of Car-free Policy in Seoul)
  • Chang-deock Kang, 2013, “Measurement of Walking Convenience Index of Seoul and Policy Tasks”, Seoul Urban Research, Vol. 14, No. 4
  • Hye-jung Han, Seong-hee Jang, Seung-in Kim, 2013, “Study on Walking Activation Plan Using the Service Design Methodology”, Study on Digital Design Science
  • The Seoul Metropolitan Government, 2013, “Survey on the Seoul Floating Population in 2012”
  • The Seoul Institute, 2013, “Statistics on Seoul Traffic”
  • Jong-hyeok Kim, Jin-tae Kim, Heung-gil Kim, Bok-min Shin, 2013, “Study on the Effective Benefits of Landscape Improvement according to the Demolition of Elevated Roads”, Seoul Urban Research, Vol. 14, No. 4


Related Film

관련 자료