Policy Implementation Period
- Automated Parking Enforcement Service: System built in 2004
- Pilot project from April to September 24 (32 cameras installed)
- A total of 156 unattended enforcement cameras additionally installed by March 2008
- May - November 2004: Commissioned the basic/working design for the illegal parking enforcement service / selected locations for additional cameras to be installed under the expansion project, and finalized the system specifications
- December 2004 - August 2005: 53 additional cameras installed as part of the expansion project
- August - October 2005: additional 32 cameras installed along Cheonggyecheon-ro
- August 2006 - February 2007: additional 51 cameras installed along Cheonhodae-ro and other locations
- September 2007 - March 2008: additional 20 cameras installed along Songpadae-ro and other locations
As the number of public officials is a finite resource, full-time enforcement cannot be expected through the use of human-only traffic enforcement. Outsourcing such enforcement services will not provide a viable or ultimate solution, either. In sum, human-only enforcement is virtually incapable of uninterrupted, continuous implementation. This situation has led to some violators thinking they simply had “bad luck” and thus have expressed their dissatisfaction about the punishment imposed. For such reasons, human-only enforcement has suffered from a multitude of frequent civil complaints regarding the overall fairness of traffic enforcement. The limited scope of a single person’s cognitive ability also raises questions about the unfairness of the enforcement and other unjustified practices in the course of carrying out such enforcement.
Another issue with human-only traffic enforcement is that it often causes traffic accidents, and can lead to or even exacerbate traffic congestion. However, traffic regulation violations (including that of illegal parking) disrupt the efficient use of traffic facilities in various ways, resulting in serious disruption of both traffic and circulation. In this sense, traffic enforcement is as crucial an element as the building of more traffic facilities.
State-of-the-art automated traffic enforcement services were introduced as a way to overcome the limitations of human-only traffic enforcement and thereby realize the full potential effect of traffic enforcement.
The Importance of the Policies
Such efforts can be understood in the context of transportation system management (TSM), a system that Western countries have emphasized since the late 1980s. In other words, the automation of traffic enforcement is consistent with the principle of balancing traffic demands and supply by ensuring the efficient management of existing facilities so as to improve their capacity, rather than introducing additional facilities.
Relevance with Other Policies
Furthermore, unattended enforcement services may be used for multiple purposes rather than simply the remote enforcement of parking regulations; services such as traffic monitoring and the collection of traffic information. More specifically, they can be used to inform the city’s traffic policies through the video link function and integrated monitoring by TOPIS as well as the effectiveness analysis of installation locations.
- Speed Enforcement Service
- Related to reducing traffic accidents
- Drive-by Parking Enforcement System
By providing these services, the city seeks not only more efficient enforcement, but also fairer and more transparent enforcement.
The agencies in charge of traffic enforcement can use such services to manage their manpower more efficiently. It can also facilitate the handling of other related work– such as the manual enforcement and issuance of parking tickets.
Main Policy Contents
1) Legal Basis
Article 87 (2) of the Enforcement Decree of the Act stipulates that evidence may be gathered using unattended equipment when identifying parking violations through the parking enforcement services.
Article 87 (Special Exceptions, etc. to Parking Regulations with Delegated Authority)
① Notwithstanding the provisions of Article 86 (2) 2, a Special Metropolitan City Mayor or a Metropolitan City Mayor may directly take necessary measures under Article 35 of the Act against vehicles violating parking regulations for the smooth flow of traffic and civilian safety.
Where a Special Metropolitan City Mayor or a Metropolitan City Mayor directly discovers and regulates a vehicle violating parking regulations pursuant to paragraph (1), he/she shall make known such instances with evidentiary materials, such as photographs of a vehicle on which a sign of vehicle subject to imposition of an administrative fine is attached or photographs, videotapes, or any other visual recording medium of the vehicle violating parking regulations taken by an unattended monitoring device (hereinafter referred to as "photographic evidence”),a document that describes the place where the violation occurred, the details of the violation, and the license plate number of the vehicle to the district leaders and country headmen that have jurisdiction over the location where such violations occurred.
2) Authority of Enforcement
If each mayor of special and metropolitan cities may delegate its enforcement authority to the district leader and county headmen, the enforcement officials of each autonomous district have the authority for enforcement.
Article 86 (Delegation or Entrustment of Authority) ② Pursuant to Article 147 (2) of the Act, each mayor of special and metropolitan cities shall delegate its following authority to the district leader and county headmen under his/her jurisdiction: <Amended on June 20, 2008>
1. Authority to appoint and dismiss traffic enforcement officials (belonging to each district and county) under Article 12 of the Act, and the authority to take measures against vehicles violating parking regulations referred to in Article 35 of the Act;
2. Authority to have the task of towing, possessing and returning vehicles vicariously performed by an agent pursuant to Article 36 (1) of the Act, and the authority to place an order to take measures and conduct the education necessary for the vicarious performance of works pursuant to Article 36 (3) of the Act;
3. Authority to impose and collect fines under Article 161 (1) (3) of the Act (limited to violations falling under any of Articles 32 through 34 of the Act)
3) System Structure
On-site subsystems should be fitted with the equipment necessary for identifying parking violations and collecting evidence. Ideally, the enforcement agency (center) should be able to monitor the parking enforcement areas and the current status of enforcement in real time.
The enforcement agency (center) should have the necessary equipment for imposing fines on the owners of the violating vehicles based on the evidence produced by the system.It is also recommended that they possess a server for the real-time monitoring of the enforcement sites and operation of the parking enforcement services.
The enforcement agency (center) may also choose to build a DB or link the relevant information from other agencies, and build a DB server or linkage server for those purposes.
Figure 1: Illegal Parking Enforcement System
Source: Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, and Transport (2009)
Figure 2: Seoul’s Illegal Parking Enforcement Systems
Source: Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, and Transport (2009)
The table below lists the components of on-site subsystems and the center subsystem.
Table 1: Components of Illegal Parking Enforcement System at Enforcement Sites
|Detection Camera||Automatically records the entry, movement, and exit of vehicles in and out of the enforcement site.|
|Enforcement Camera||A high-definition digital camera which records evidence of parking violations.
Operated via control signals from the on-site control unit.
|Zoom Lens||This lens adjusts the detection area of the camera so as to enlarge or shrink the collected images within a specific range.|
|Housing||Protects cameras and lenses from vibrations and sunlight|
|Compresses images collected from the site and transmits them to the center in real time.
The center transmits audio data to guide the violating vehicles at the site.
Transmits serial signals for various on-site control functions.
|Control Enclosure||Designed to maintain components at optimal conditions and protect them from vibrations, sunlight, smoke, and other interference.|
|Pan/Tilt||Controls the direction of the cameras so as to take photos of violating vehicles
Provides accurate and stable position control and high-speed control.
|Power Control Unit||Provides a stable supply of power to on-site equipment, and allows for remote power control.|
Table 2: Components of Parking Enforcement System at the Center (Control Room)
|Operation Terminal PC||On-site monitoring, control of on-site equipment, display of status information, issuance of guidance, and printing of violation notices
Performs various functions for viewing, editing, revising, and registering DMBS 3).
|Operation & Management Terminal||Monitors enforcement status and real-time traffic situations, and stores information in a DB|
|Data Processing Server||User account management, plate number recognition system data management, system operation and management, on-site equipment management, enforcement information list management, database link, system management (shutdown, plate number recognition data)|
|Video Storage Terminal||Allows for storing, searching, and displaying videos from the site. Allows for videos to be searched by time, date, and time zones in case of a civil complaint. Performs event log and enforcement list management.|
|Database Server||Stores and backs up enforcement data, updates detection areas and parameters, controls recording commands and vehicle detection functions.|
|DISK ARRAY4)||Stores and manages data in preset folders at a specific cycle
Backup software consists of Master Module, Client Module, and Disk Backup Module
|Required a)||Plate number recognition server||Automatically recognizes plate numbers from the photographs of vehicle number plates|
and Transmission Server
|Distributes and transmits enforcement videos from each site to departments and agencies that require them.|
|Processes videos from the Video Distribution and Transmission Server in formats required by the respective departments, and manages the information on the history and display status of on-site videos transmitted to each department.|
|a) Required: Must be set up either in the onsite system or the center subsystem.
b) Optional: To be selectively implemented as required
3) Operation Organization
The overall system of parking enforcement consists of two parts: one in charge of direct operation of the enforcement services and the other responsible for the administrative handling related to the imposition of fines. Therefore, each part should be manned with the suitable personnel.
4) Current Status of Unattended Parking Enforcement Systems in Seoul
Table 3: Current Status of Unattended Illegal Parking Enforcement Systems Installed on Roads (In 2007)
|Road||Number of Systems Installed||Road||Number of Systems Installed||Road||Number of Systems Installed|
Table 4: Current Status of Unattended Parking Enforcement Systems Installed in Autonomous Districts (End of December 2014)
|Name of autonomous districts||Number of Systems
|Illegal Parking||Bus-only Lane||Installed in Bus||Public
Note) Bus-installed type systems are based on the bus depots.
1) Installation, Before and After Effects
Table 5: Comparison of Traffic Volume before and after the System Installation
|Target Location||2004||2005||Rate of Increase/Decrease|
|Seoul Art Center
Nambu Circular Road
Table 6: Comparison of Changes in the Number of Illegally Parked Vehicles
|Target Location||Equipment Size||Illegal Parking
|Change||Rate of Increase/Decrease|
|Nohyeon Station → Kyobo Tower||3 locations||163 units||47 units||-116||-71%|
|Kyobo Tower → Gangnam Station||1 location||144 units||90 units||-54||-37%|
|Gangnam Station → Woosung Apartment||1 location||116 units||66 units||-50||-43%|
|Total||5 locations||432 units||203 units||-220||-52%|
After the introduction of the automated parking enforcement system, the traffic volume increased by 0.12% - 3.10% or, 1.55% on average. The number of illegally parked vehicles per day significantly decreased from 37% to 71%, showing 52% on average.
The following table illustrates the gradual and continuous decrease following the introduction of the system.
Table 7: Number of Illegal Parking Enforcement by Year
Source: Seoul Metropolitan Government, 2014
The following table shows the amount of fines imposed on, and collected from, illegally parked vehicles by year. The amount of imposed and collected fines all recorded gradual decreases until the end of 2014. The fines imposed for violations of bus-only lanes also largely decreased until recently.
Table 8: Amount of Fines Imposed and Collected from Traffic Enforcement
|Division||Parking Violation||Bus-only Lane|
Source: Seoul Metropolitan Government, 2014
A Wonju official said, “the fully automated system is capable of unattended enforcement around the clock, allowing for parking enforcement at night or on holidays. This resulted in a 6-times increase of illegally parks vehicles identified.” He also added, “We will also operate two vehicle-mounted cameras to enforce paring regulations at night, focusing on areas where illegal parking has been disrupting traffic flow.” (Korea Economic Daily, November 20, 2008).
2) Effect Analysis through Demand Survey
Figure 3: Findings from the Suwon demand survey
3) Allows for significant reduction of on-site dispatches and workload while preventing illegal parking with great effectiveness - automated plate number recognition with monitoring cameras (more than 100m away) (Geonah Information Technology, 2016)
Challenges and Solutions
The following table shows a gradual decrease of the collection ratio of parking fines since 2011, and commentators point out that the decrease has been caused by excessive exemption.
Table 9: Amount and Ratio of Fines Imposed and Collected for Parking and Standing Violations by Year
|Imposed||Collected||Collection Ratio (%)|
Source: Seoul Metropolitan Government, 2014
2) Fixed CCTVs face limitations in that drivers who know the locations and ranges of the devices can predict or avoid any traffic enforcement. Therefore, drive-by enforcement equipment is expected to be used more widely as a way to overcome the shortcoming of the previous systems.
Mobile automated enforcement equipment has proved its effectiveness in several cities. As a piece of all-weather removable enforcement equipment, it has a monitoring camera installed on the roof of the vehicle. The camera rotates 350 degrees and is capable of taking up to 30 photographs per second. It can take photographs at a speed of 40km per hour, and maintains its effectiveness at night or under adverse weather conditions using its infrared device.
In 2007, the equipment was installed in four districts of Ulsan, except for Ulju-gun, and the results were notable since its enforcement achievements accounted for 27% of the total number of parking violations detected in a month (including enforcement by personnel and fixed-type equipment).